National rural health policy development depends on an accurate and up-to-date assessment of physician supply. This project described the supply of generalist physicians and osteopaths in rural areas of the United States. We used data from the AMA and Area Resource File to determine the total supply of practicing physicians in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties in 2005. We used Urban Influence Codes to classify nonmetropolitan counties based on their adjacency to a metropolitan county and the size of the largest urban place within the county. We assessed the supply of physicians in the smallest and most isolated areas of the country and analyzed rural physician supply on a state-by-state and regional basis. Funded by HRSA’s FORHP.