The Effects of Timing of Physical Therapy on Health Care Costs, Utilization, and Opioid Use


This study uses health insurance claims data provided by the Health Care Cost Institute (HCCI) to examine the first provider seen to care for low back pain impacts downstream service utilization, opioid prescription patterns, and health care spending.

Lead Researcher: Bianca K. Frogner, PhD and Ken Harwood, PhD, PT, FAPTA

Contact Info: and

Funder: Health Services Research Pipeline Grant for the Foundation for Physical Therapy Research and American Physical Therapy Association






Authors Title Type Date Documents/Media
Harwood KJ, Pines J, Andrilla CH, Frogner BK Where to start? A two stage residual inclusion approach to estimating influence of the initial provider on health care utilization and costs for low back pain in the US PUBLICATION 05-01-2022 Article
Pines JM, Harwood K, Andrilla CHA, Frogner BK Opioid Prescriptions, Radiography, and Costs for Self-Limited “One-and- Done” Lower Back Pain Visits in a Commercially Insured Population PUBLICATION 03-01-2022
Findings Brief